Keynote 3 – Dystopia as a cause of dyspepsia: Cautionary tales about the application of AI
Swiftly, medicine is becoming a data-centered discipline and, beyond the traditional statistical approaches, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, more in particular, Machine Learning (ML) are
attracting much interest for the analysis of medical data and integration with medical devices.
This could be seen as an aspect of the broader phenomenon of AI commodification, a pre-requisite for AI to reach society at large. As a consequence, societal issues related to the use of AI and ML should not be ignored any longer and certainly not in the healthcare domain. The use of AI and ML in medicine holds all sorts of promises: from facilitating personalized medicine
through -omics data analytics to adaptive intelligent medical devices; from clinical decision support systems to robotic surgery. But the shine of these new technologies should not obscure
the importance of appropriately dealing with potentially negative societal issues associated to their use that may take many forms and include fairness, privacy and anonymity, explainability
and interpretability, but also some broader matters such as ethics and legislation.
All these issues are relevant to achieve the objective of fostering acceptance of AI and ML-based technologies in healthcare, as well as to comply with an evolving legislation concerning the impact of digital technologies on ethically and privacy sensitive matters. The goal of this talk is to reflect on how all these topics may affect present and future medical applications of AI and ML.